1 a hostile (very unfriendly) disposition; "he could not conceal his hostility" [syn: ill will]
3 the feeling of a hostile person; "he could no longer contain his hostility" [syn: enmity, ill will]
4 violent action that is hostile and usually unprovoked [syn: aggression]
5 acts of overt warfare; "the outbreak of hostilities" [syn: belligerency]
- Chinese: 敵意/敌意 (dí yì)
- Danish: fjendtlighed
- Dutch: vijandigheid, hostiliteit
- French: hostilité
- German: Feindseligkeit
- Greek: εχθρότητα (1), εχθροπραξία (2)
- Italian: ostilità
- Japanese: 敵意 (てきい, tekī)
- Korean: 적의 (jeogui)
- Latin: hostilitas nominative, hostilitatis genitive
- Old English: fæhþ
- Portuguese: hostilidade
- Romanian: ostilitate
- Russian: враждебность
- Spanish: hostilidad
Hostility is a form of angry internal rejection or denial in psychology. It is a part of personal construct psychology, developed by Dan Kelman. In everyday speech it is more commonly used as a synonym for anger and aggression.
In psychological terms, Kelman defined hostility as the willful refusal to accept evidence that one's perceptions of the world are wrong. Instead of reconsidering, the hostile person attempts to force or coerce the world to fit their view, even if this is a forlorn hope, and however harmful the cost.
Whilst testing theories against reality is a necessary part of life, and persistence in the face of failure is often a necessary part of invention or discovery, in the case of hostility there is the distinction that the evidence is not assessed and a decision made to try again. Instead the evidence is suppressed or denied, and deleted from awareness - the unfavorable evidence which might suggest a prior belief is flawed is instead ignored and wilfully avoided. Psychologically, it can be said that reality is being held to ransom, and in this sense hostility is a form of psychological extortion - an attempt to force reality to produce the desired feedback, in order that preconceptions become validated.
In this sense, hostility is a response which forms part of discounting of unwanted cognitive dissonance.
hostility in Spanish: Hostilidad
hostility in Portuguese: Hostilidade
Kilkenny cats, abhorrence, abomination, action, aggression, aggressiveness, allergy, altercation, animosity, animus, antagonism, anteposition, antipathy, antithesis, argument, aversion, bad blood, bad feeling, bellicism, bellicosity, belligerence, belligerency, bickering, bloodshed, cat-and-dog life, chauvinism, clash, clashing, cold sweat, collision, combat, combativeness, competition, conflict, confrontation, confrontment, contention, contentiousness, contest, contestation, contradiction, contradistinction, contraindication, contraposition, contrariety, contrariness, contrast, controversy, counterposition, creeping flesh, cross-purposes, cut and thrust, debate, despitefulness, disaccord, disaffinity, disagreement, discrepancy, disgust, disputation, dispute, dissension, enmity, ferocity, fierceness, fight, fighting, fractiousness, friction, hard feelings, hardheartedness, hate, hatred, horror, hostilities, ill will, immediate dislike, inconsistency, inimicalness, jingoism, litigation, loathing, logomachy, malevolence, malice, malignity, martialism, militancy, militarism, mortal horror, nausea, negativeness, noncooperation, obstinacy, opposing, oppositeness, opposition, opposure, oppugnance, oppugnancy, paper war, personality conflict, perverseness, perversity, polar opposition, polarity, polarization, polemic, posing against, pugnaciousness, pugnacity, quarrel, quarreling, quarrelsomeness, rancor, recalcitrance, refractoriness, repugnance, repulsion, rivalry, saber rattling, scrapping, showdown, shuddering, spite, spitefulness, squabbling, state of war, strife, struggle, truculence, uncooperativeness, unfriendliness, unpeacefulness, vying, war, war of words, warfare, warmongering, warpath, words, wrangling